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More than a room that is clean, a cleanroom is defined in the ISO standard 14644-1 as:
“A room in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled, and which is constructed and used in a manner to minimize the introduction, generation, and retention of particles inside the room and in which other relevant parameters, e.g. temperature, humidity, and pressure, are controlled as necessary”
Minimizing the introduction, generation and retention of particles in a cleanroom is done in 3 ways:
Maximising product yield, improving quality control and ensuring safety are common reasons to use a cleanroom. Cleanliness is only one of the aspects controlled within a cleanroom. Cleanrooms can also control temperature, humidity, sound, lighting, and vibration when necessary. The operations being conducted will determine which variables must be controlled. Here are some industries and applications that use cleanrooms:
Source: Whyte, W. (2010). Cleanroom Technology: Fundamentals of Design, Testing and Operation. Wiley; 2 edition.